Rug weaving and reversible rug weaving
one of the traditional and beautiful handicrafts of Mughan county is called “rug weaving”. Rug Weaving is one of the traditional handmade of the state, which is very important due to the cheap price (compare to the carpet) and the beauty and simplicity of the motifs. The oldest sample is related to the Parthian period. The cords of cotton are from thrown cotton thread and its woof is made of wool and sometimes silk. The method of rug weaving is that in the first step, a scaffold is installed with cotton yarn and then they begin to weave.
Rug texture is prevalent in most parts of the state, and production place can be guessed by its design and coloring. A variety of beautiful, lively, and vibrant colors are used in the rug fabric, and colorful wools and sometimes silk in different thicknesses are used for rug texture. Sometimes silk is also used for knitting. Carpet designs are usually geometric, and in each city they make special designs in conventional designs. Rug weaving and it`s use are so engrafted with the lives of nomads that they are making other products such as sacks, saddle bag, wrapper for bed clothes, manta, and sometimes decoration of the tribe walls, equipment such as mat, MASNAD rug, fringe, plus, prostrate cloth, tablecloth, stool cloth, ground cloth, saddle bag, pouch, sack, salt shaker, saddle bag and both sides are useable.
One of the traditional handicrafts of Mughan county is flat weave. JAJIM is a woven handicraft that usually has stripes, diamond, and colorful designs, and people were putting it on the stool cloth in the old days. From long ago, it used to wrap the bed and therefor so-called “place”, so it was called “collect place”. Then after sometime, for ease of pronunciation, they called it JAJIM. The said JAIM warps are made of colorful wool with number 10 double MERINUS, and sometimes, of course, colorful silks are also used as warps. Because of the fact that woof can`t be seen, it is chosen from gray or black cotton yarn with number 20 into sextuple.
The method of doing is to open the bowstring in the open area (They stretch out the middle of bowstring and separate a number of warps, then they begin to weave. Usually they weave JAJIM by the length of 10 to 15 meters and width of 15 to 25 centimeters. After the end of the weaving, the pieces are sewn by cutting and keeping the pieces, next to each other to produce the desired dimensions. In most parts of the state, JAJIM’s texture is customary, with the difference that the color mixture, or the elegance of yarn and motifs are different in various parts of the state. Common designs are: apple flower, gypsum DIRNAKHI (goat`s nail), SIRGA (earring), spools, BALI BAGHALI, JULMA, almond, OZOK RING (jewel ring), HAMYAN and … However, it should be noted that the highest volume of production is related to the tribes of Ardebil, KHALKHAL, MESHKINSHAHR, PARSABAD MOGHAN, , NAMIN, KOSAR and BILESAVAR. Consumables such as ground cloth, prostrate cloth, mat, tablecloth, bedspreads, stool cloth and sofa cover are used in complementary work with leather.
One of the handicrafts is the traditional weaving, which is mainly done by women. This art is made by knitting needle (two needles, five needles or hook) and products such as socks, neck shawl. Some of the traditional knitwear such as blouses and hats are decorative. This art is prevalent in most parts of the state, and women typically fill their leisure time with this art during the cold winter days.
In some rural areas of state, there is a textile, which is called as Paalaaz. Paalaaz looks like a coarse weave rug, and its texture is like rug. It has a dimension of about 250 * 350 centimeters. To produce it, they usually use number 2 cotton yarn for warp, and number 5 cotton yarn for woof in different colors. Sometimes, instead of a woof yarn, they use narrow strips of cloth cut from used clothes and use as low cost ground cloth. Sometimes they use wool for texture, which is waterproof of moist and is suitable for wetlands. Typically, weaving of plus, takes about two days. Consumption is included to ground cloth, bag, prostrate cloth, saddle bag, and so on.
One of the traditional handicrafts of Mughan county is called pouch weaving. The pouch texture and type of its raw materials are quite like carpets and patent leather, and the only difference is its dimension and size. CHANTE is consisted of two pieces of rectangular woven carpets of approximately 40 * 30 cm in size, elegantly seamed from three sides (envelope type), and on the two sides of the bottom there are two painted tassels and in the upper part, there is a rod such as bag. CHANTE is a traditional bag that weaves in most villages and nomadic areas. In some villages, they also knit CHANTE by the method of rug or JAJIM weaving. (It should be noted that some people, weave CHANTE by mixture of some knits of carpet, rug and SOMALK).
One of the most beautiful handicrafts in the state is needle weaving. Many types of hook-woven products are said to be crocheted using natural fibers. Crochet has various techniques in texture and design. Many products such as clothes, hat, gloves, linen, many kinds of decorative tablecloths, bedspreads, knitted dolls and … They have a functional and decorative aspect. They are produced and woven in this way. Almost all parts of Mughan county are familiar with this art and this is a kind of entertainment for women and girls.
One of the beautiful and nomadic handicrafts of the Mughan county is manta. Mantas are designed to decorate the horse and camel. Horse manta`s role is to keep the horse warm, and the it is decorative and ceremonial. But in aspect of the camel, it is decorative. The main body is a rectangle with two hinges are attached to it. These hinges are covering the horse’s back. The difference between the horse’s manta and manta of camel is that, manta of hose is larger than the camel’s manta and it is stitched together by two pieces of cloth, so that the hump, remains outside. Generally, in most parts of the state, manta of horse and camel are produced with various shapes and decorations, and are made in the form of rug, carpet, JAJIM and needle type. Tribes of Azerbaijan, DASHT MOGHAN, Kurds of KHORASAN, Turkmen, Fars, VARAMIN and IL AFSHAR, weave and decorate manta in their own style. For example, in Turkmen desert, manta is made of cloth, applique and cotton with fine needle work. In KERMAN state, they make manta as rug, needle designs, SHIRIKI PEACH design with warp and woof of wool, and among the tribes of Azerbaijan, the JAJIM texture technique is used to produce the manta. Horse manta is common in nomadic areas of Mughan county.
One of Germi’s traditional handicrafts is called carpet weaving. Many people use the word of FARSH instead of GHALI word. Here is a brief explanation of the difference between these two words. GHALI is a texture which has woven on a scaffold (vertically or horizontally), short pieces of fibers are tied by a special technique around parallel warps to make woven fabrics with tufts (long peaches make the surface of the carpet soft and smooth). Its raw material for warp are: wool, fleece, or throw silk, and for the woof are: cotton yarn, wool or less twisted silk, and has a slippery, pink or geometric pattern.
The word FARSH is Arabic and its past participle is carpeted. The carpet in Arabic means the earth, and is the synonym of the word “throne”, that means the sky and can be applied to all kinds of ground cover, for example: paved, mosaic carpet, rug, mat and …..
Carpet designs are divided into 19 main groups, which include:
1. Map of monuments and historical buildings
2. Shah ABBASI map
3. Slim map
4. Spray map
5. Adaptation map
7. The bush group
8. Tree Map
9. Turkmen map
10. Frame map
11. Frame map (another type)
12. Foreign flower map
13. Potted Map
14. Mixed fish map
15. MEHRABI Group
16. MOHARAMAT map
17. Geometric Map
18. ILIYATI Map
19. Compilation map
But what is certain is that the number of primary and secondary motifs in Iran’s carpets are more than what we know.
One of the beautiful handicrafts of the state is called as MASNAD. The said rug with approximate dimensions of 110 * 170 cm and is woven like rug on scaffold. MASNAD designs are usually the altar and is used as prostrated cloth. Other types of MASNAD with various designs, at the top of the room, are special for guests, and the reason for naming it may be due to this work. The motifs are all geometric and do not have curved or revolving motifs. The texture of the vertical lines is staggered and symmetry is observed in the weaving. One of the characteristics of MASNAD is the hard contrast of colors between the background and the design.
Raw material of MASNAD, cotton yarn of 20.18 triplex for warp and colored wool yarn with number of 5.2, as woof. The MASNAD is also manufactured in dimensions of 70 * 90, 60 * 90 and 70 * 100-1 * 1.90 cm.
One of the beautiful crafts of Mughan county is FARMASH. The said one is a rectangular and has a door, box-shaped box, and used to transport quilts, mattresses or household appliances, during the transfer of Shahsavan tribes. This beautiful hand woven fabric is woven with weaving techniques of rug, VARNI and carpet. And its designs are sometimes prominent and complementary. FARMASH designs are appealing and cheerful, and its production is more common among the nomadic tribes of Shahsavan.
Salt cellar weaving:
One of Mughan county handicrafts is salt cellar weaving. The woolen salt is used by the tribes to store and transport large size salt or rubbed one. Salt cellars are mainly woven in tribes using a variety of techniques. The back of the salt cellar has a simple design of the rug weaving in different colors, and on the salt cellar, they are using techniques of VERNI weaving or carpet weaving. After finishing the texture, the fabric is considered as a lining inside the salt cellar so that the salt does not touch the wool. The general form of salt case is in the form of a bottle. The designs used are mind-boggling and made from surroundings of the weaver`s. Among them are animal pictures (deer, fox, sparrows, ducks and many more) and plant graphics (Cedar trees, Sycamore trees and others).
One of the traditional and native industries of the state is the sewing of local clothing. Perhaps we can proudly say that no country has the same size as Iran in terms of the variety of designs and colors of local clothing, which is perhaps due to the ethnic diversity that we see in Iran. After centuries and with the advancement of machine industries, we still can see local clothes on the people of the village, especially the tribes, when we go to the villages.
One of the handicrafts of the state is doll knitting. Certainly, doll making has been a symbolic, ethnical, religious, and art man for thousands of years. And this way of thinking has spread thousands of years ago. In Ardabil state, according to the customs of the various regions of the province, puppets are produced in various ways with local clothing. “TAKAM” is considered to be one of the mythical dolls of the province, which circulates in the streets and neighborhoods of towns and villages in the days of NOWRUZ and announces the arrival of spring.
One of the crafts in this state is smithy. In the old days, artists of this field in the cities and villages have been engaged in manufacturing products such as sickle, hammer, spike, horse harness, cow and many more. In contemporary time, as animal husbandry and agriculture became industrial or semi industrial, so these artists are making decorative applicable products like pot base, partition, window protector and so on. The basis of their work, like scrubbing and drying, is heating metals by Forge, blowing, hitting and stable connection, to get the final shape.
One of the traditional crafts of weaving called straw weaving and covers the tent wall and habitat of EL SEVAN tribe. Cane is beautiful and prevents the entry of heat, cold, wind and soil. This is because the canes are hollow and thus act as insulation. In case of rain or cold, humidity increases volume of cane and stick them together and prevents the entry of cold or rain.
In case of heat and dry weather, canes expand and closes the entrance of air. Because the tribes are nomadic and cane have always considered to be their tent`s wall, so we can be compare their history with their nomadic history.